Since the transport sector is both a driver and a result of economic growth and international trade, it continues to grow rapidly as the global population and demands for services increases. Following a “business as usual” scenario , passenger transport volume between 2015 and 2050 will double and freight volume will at least triple.
This high impact intensity framework covers the entire value chain of both freight and passenger transport across all modes of transportation (road, rail, water and air) and all means including cycling and walking: it encompasses part and vehicle manufacturers, transportation infrastructure and operators of transportation services, such as leasers, transporters, logisticians, car sharing services.
How the NEC measures impacts of mobility and freight
In brief, the methodology used to calculate these environmental impacts is based on transport means and vehicle type performances. These performances are assessed using greenhouse gas and air pollutants emissions per passenger.km for mobility and par ton.km for freight.
Key Performance Indicators
The environmental stakes that stand out as key for the transportation and mobility sector and that are measurable at company level are climate and air quality. Three performance indicators are aggregated for the existing vehicle fleets and for the new fleets delivered by vehicle and parts manufacturers. The transported unit used is one passenger for mobility and one ton for freight. The performance is then reported per passenger or ton and per km, as follows:
+ For climate, level of GHG emissions, from upstream to use phase, in g of CO2 per transported unit over 1 km
+ For air quality, level of NOx and PM10 emissions, during use phase, in mg of NOx and PM10 per transported unit over 1 km
As expected, walking, bicycle, metro, tram and train appears to be by far the most efficient environmental solutions fully aligned with environmental transition and climate goals. As a result, they are qualified as eco-solutions and are set at +100% default NEC.
How the NEC measures impacts of infrastructures
According to the generic NEC methodology, the NEC of infrastructures is derived from their final use. A motorway, an airport, a harbour, a train station or an EV charging point has a NEC based on the vehicle mix that it serves. When the detailed vehicle mix is unknown, 4 default values are used, as follows: